The Development of thinking
Various forms of children’s creative experimentation contribute to the development of the curiosity of children, their curiosity of the mind, form of intellectual ability.
One of the important lines of mental development of the preschooler is the gradual transition from more elementary forms of thinking to more complex . Thus, the development of clearly-effective forms of thinking creates the Foundation for the transition to visual-figurative thinking, which, in turn, is a necessary stage in the development of logical (conceptual) thinking. Such transitions characterize the entire period of early childhood.
The conditions for the upbringing and education of children can contribute to this process, and can also hamper it, causing long-lasting negative consequences.
The specificity of the visual-active thinking is the close relationship of thought and action. If the child for any reason is not allowed to use your hands, and the matter is unresolved. In the process of this form of thinking is consistent, the transitions from the practical transformation of the subject in the analysis of results and building on the basis of information received subsequent practical action, the implementation of which gives new information about poznavam the object, etc. Thus, the main function of the visual-active thinking lies in the practical transformation of an object or phenomenon, and obtaining baseline information about its hidden properties and relations.
A typical method of performing the visual-active thinking — a way that is generally referred to as the path of trial and error . This way during early childhood is undergoing a number of significant changes: chaotic trial and error followed by system trial actions . Much more complicated analysis of the results of each trial and evaluation from the point of view of the conditions of the problem. This analysis of qualitative features of trial and error actions, their size and subsequent restructuring actions in accordance with the results of this analysis require the deployment of certain mental operations . which act as one important aspect of the cognitive activity of children.
Communication visual-active thinking with practical transformation of the situation determines its strengths and weaknesses. The possibility of transforming children real objects is limited . and all of these properties can be detected only in the process of operating beliefs about these objects.
This operation acts as a visual-figurative thinking to the relative freedom of formation and change data views.
An important condition for the occurrence of visual thinking is the formation of children’s abilities to distinguish between real objects and plan of models reflecting these objects. Using such models, the child imagines the hidden sides of the situation. In the process of using models in children formed a special action with a dual focus — they are a child model, and relate them to the original.
This creates the preconditions “separation”- actions from the model and from the original and their implementation in terms of representations. Great possibilities in this respect are revealed when children work with the computer .
In the process of the action depicted on the screen, the objects and phenomena of children develop flexible, moving ideas and images . which serve as a basis for the transition from clearly-effective to visual-figurative thinking.
Such computer games as “Swing”, “make a picture”, “Build a house”, “Magic garage”, “Designer”, contribute to the development of the visual-active thinking, and then and visual thinking.
In the game “Swing” children first solve the proposed tasks in clearly-effective plan . they experiment, try, wrong, picking up on a lot of different toys thus to balance the seesaw. This game develops visual-active thinking, creates the ability to adjust trial and error steps, consistently bringing the child to the goal. At a certain stage of play, children begin to realize their actions are not realistic, but in terms of submissions — they mentally associate the size and weight of the toys and then place them on the swings, achieving immediately correct result. Children of preschool age in the course of the game pass even at the level of logical thinking: they calculate the total mass of toys on each shoulder of the swing and make appropriate conclusions.
In the game “Build a house” you want to recreate the whole bricks, and in some way connecting them half. Children by first looking for real world samples part of the brick (and these parts are cut the most intricate way) that would be suitable for each other. After such trial and error they find the matching halves of a brick, then move from the actual trial and error to actions in the plan views . they are looking for the right half of the brick, mentally applying it to the model — that’s a higher level of problem solving.
However, in this process, children do not create new images, and integrate existing images into a whole. The fact that all the parts of the bricks are offered to children in the form of ready-made samples, and the child of them chooses.
More complex forms of creative thinking children show in the games, “Designer”, “Stained glass”, “Kaleidoscope” . where they create a completely new and unexpected images on the basis of elementary source images . data in terms of the game. Important here is the creative process of building a new coherent picture with an original composition that brings together the individual parts in a new artwork. The conditions of these games — colorful and unexpected — stimulate children’s imagination, develop an understanding of the harmony of colors and shapes.
The success of cognitive development of the child largely depends on the content of his mental activity — which objects and phenomena of the surrounding world he knows. Traditionally it was believed that the most adequate objects of cognitive activities are directly perceive the basic properties and qualities of things: color, shape, size, weight, etc.
Therefore, special attention in preschool children was given (and being) a touch of child-rearing. Games such as “Fun”, “Kaleidoscope”, “Stained glass” develop sensory abilities of preschoolers — the ability to distinguish colors, shapes of objects, their size, are taught to use the knowledge about these qualities in the process of fine performance, application, design.
However, modern research on child psychology show that a particularly beneficial effect on the cognitive development of the preschooler has knowledge of their simple relationships and dependencies of the surrounding world (physical, biological, social). This trend of thinking is also reflected in computer games.